All atoms have a set of variants called isotopes in which the proton number is the same but the neutron number is different carbon dating made easy. About the first thing any astronomer wants to know about a star is its class. The protons are bound together even though of the same charge by the much more powerful short range strong force which is carried by both protons and neutrons but not by the electrons. The most famous examples are the carbon stars which display bands of carbon molecules. But the only way of actually understanding them is to understand and appreciate their spectra the colored rainbows that lead us into their depths. As a result younger stars contain more of the leavings of older stars and therefore contain more heavy atoms including the metals carbon dating made easy.
For example mira variables have hydrogen emission lines that are excited by powerful shock waves sonic booms made by the stars pulsations. The electrons that surround an atom have a minimum energy below which they cannot go a discovery of quantum mechanics made in the early part of the 20th century . Planets are also found if they transit in front of their stars causing dips in brightness. Combining data on velocities along the line of sight with those determined across the line of sight from a star s angular shift and distance allows us to find the star s actual speed relative to the sun and to construct a picture of the internal motions in the galaxy. In a double star system each star affects the other and each revolves around a common center of mass. Stars also move along the line of sight some going away from us some coming toward us.
The named divisions are artificial and serve only to block out large spectral segments. Class s is used for stars that have intermediate carbon abundances wherein the carbon content is roughly equal to that of oxygen. In the modern spectrograph light is sent from the telescope onto a collimator a curved mirror that straightens the converging beam.Vega is an a0 v star polaris is f7 i or ii and aldebaran is k5 iii. Subdwarfs are therefore all very old. Iron with 26 electrons has 26 ionization states each more positively charged than the next as more and more electrons are taken away.
Even an orbiting planet will make its star shift back and forth by a small amount.
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